Endometrium is the lining of the cavity of the uterus. Uterus is a hollow structure where in which the fertilized embryo grows into a baby. Endometrial cancer is the abnormal growth of cells in the inner lining of the uterus cavity. In most cases endometrial cancer can be diagnosed at an early stage as they have symptoms including heavy and abnormal bleeding, vaginal discharge and pelvic pain. In most cases, the uterus is removed to prevent the spread of cancer.
Causes for endometrial cancer
A genetic mutation is recognized as the cause of abnormal cell growth in the uterus lining. The mutation transforms the normal cells into abnormal cells and gets accumulated to form a tumor. Other reasons that cause endometrial cancer include:
- Hormone imbalance: hormones produced by the ovaries estrogen and progesterone levels are deviated causing irregular menstruation, obesity and diabetes.
- Infertility: women who are not able to get pregnant have a high risk of developing endometrial cancer
- Age: endometrial cancer is mostly developed in women who are under menopause.
- Obesity: excess fat in the body can alter the hormone balance thereby increasing the risk of developing endometrial cancer
- Hormone therapy: some meditations taken for breast cancer has shown to develop the chances for cancer in the uterine lining
Diagnosing and staging endometrial cancer
Doctors diagnose the presence of cancer by transvaginal ultrasound or by hysteroscopy. If the presence of cancer is confirmed then various test are conducted to determine the extent of cancer.
Stages of endometrial cancer are divided into 4 sections:
- Stage I – in stage 1 the cancer is found only in the uterus.
- Stage II – in this stage the cancer is spread to the cervix from the uterus.
- Stage III – here the uterus, cervix and the pelvic lymph nodes are in danger.
- Stage IV – in advanced stage of cancer the pelvic region, bladder and rectum are also affected.
Treatment for endometrial cancer is decided on the stage of cancer, general health condition of the patients and their preferences.
- Surgery – surgery is opted for women who are in menopause. During the surgery the uterus and associated organs including the fallopian tubes and ovaries are removed.
- Radiation – radiation uses the help of energy beams to destroy the cancer cells.
- Hormone therapy – hormone therapy is suggested to advanced endometrial cancer patients to regulate the hormone levels using mediations. Meditations to increase the level of progesterone and decrease the level of estrogen in the body are prescribed.
- Chemotherapy – in this method of treatment, chemicals are administered as pills or intravenously to kill cancer cells.
At Greenview medical centre, we have a team of experts to help you treat and recover from all medical conditions. We have the best medical infrastructure and medical utilities to provide all round care and support to the patients. For any queries related to endometrial cancer contact us.